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Sunday, October 29, 2006
Save Those Shampoo Sachets!

Got this from email. Save a number of sachets from Pantene, Rejoice, and Head & Shoulders to redeem prices. Better start saving your sachets fast! This promo is only until January 2007.

Winning Haircare Promo Mechanics

1. This promotion covers all new shampoo and conditioner 10mL and 12mL sachets of all variants of Head & Shoulders, Pantene, and Rejoice.

2. Sachets must be authentic, in good condition, and whole. Only sachets that meet these criteria will be accepted and are eligible for a prize.

3. The promotion period is from October 15, 2006 to January 31, 2007 and will run nationwide. Customers can redeem their prizes up to March 31, 2007 (or 60 days after the end of the promo).

4. Customers can collect any combination of sachets (either from the same brand or a mixture of the 3 brands) from H&S, Pantene, and Rejoice and exchange them for an instant prize or discount. Choices are limited to the prize matrix below:



5. To claim their instant prize or discount, customers can go to any of these redemption centers, at their respective business hours:

a. McDonald’s food prizes – All McDonald’s stores
b. David’s salon prizes – All David’s salon branches
c. Smart Load – Participating sari-sari stores, groceries, supermarkets, and Smart Wireless Centers
d. Smart Cellphones – participating Smart Wireless Centers

6. Customers must give the sachets to an authorized representative in the redemption center to claim his/her prize. Once the sachets are validated, the customer is given the corresponding prize. No sachets, no prize.

7. There is no limit to the number of times a customer can claim for an instant prize, as long as he/she submits the equivalent number of sachets.

8. Submitted sachets are not convertible to cash.

9. Prizes are not convertible to cash.

10. Employees of Procter & Gamble Phils., Hemisphere Leo Burnett, ARC Worldwide, WSI, McDonald’s, David’s Salon, Smart Communications, and their relatives up to the 3rd degree of consanguinity or affinity are disqualified from joining the promo.


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Friday, October 27, 2006
Salted Red Egg Making (itlog na maalat)

Eggs with fissures are sold as sariwa or fresh duck eggs. Eggs with thin shells but have no crack are made into salted red eggs.

Dip eggs in a mixture of salt, garden soil, and water. As a starter, put 3 canfulls of salt (using common powdered milk can) to ½ pail of garden soil that have been strained. Add water gradually.

Stop adding water to soil when mixture sticks to your fingers when you dip these in the salty muck. Coat eggs with soil-salt mixture and store for 18 days. On the 19th day, wash and hard-boil the eggs. Finally, dip salted eggs in a solution or red dye.

The next batch of eggs can be processed using the previous mixture, but add one canful of salt. Eggs are stored in a box measuring 14 x 14 x 21 inches.


SOURCE: gov.ph/cat_agriculture


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Balut Making

Select duck eggs using the pitik system-tap eggs with the fingers to cull out eggs with cracks or thin-shelled. Eggs with cracks have hollow sound; thin-shelled eggs have brittle sound.

Only thick-shelled eggs are used for balut making because these can withstand stresses of egg placement and removal in cylindrical baskets called "toong". These Iare open on both ends, 34 inches high and 21 inches in diameter; spaces around are filled with rice hull up to 4 inches from the brim. Ideally, eggs made into balut should not be older than 5 days from the time these phase are laid by ducks.

Heat is needed to develop the embryos. Roast or heat palay to a temperature of 107oF or 43oC in an iron vat or cauldron. Remove palay when you can still hold the palay in your hand when you remove it.

Egg bags are then placed in the toong; these are alternated with heated palay bags. The number ofheated palay bags is one for every egg bag. However, place two heated palay bags on the bottom and two on the top level of the toong to ensure heat conservation.

For every toong containing 10 layers of eggs, you would need 13 bags of roasted ) palay. Each toong can hold 10 bags to tikbo. Cover with jusi sacks to conserve heat further .

Candling is the process of holding egg against the hole of a lighted box in a dark room to separate infertile eggs from fertile one. Infertile eggs are called penoy; these are also boiled like balut but fetch a lower price.

First candling is done on the 11 th day after eggs are placed in toong. Candling is again done on the 17th day to separate eggs with dead embryos (abnoy) and those that are ready to be sold as balut.

Eggs with weak embryos take 18 to 20 days to be released; these are hard-boiled and sold.

Eggs intended for hatching are left in the balutan for 28 days when duckling will hatch. After 20 days, palay bags are not heated anymore since embryos can generate enough heat to keep them warm.

When using kerosene or electric incubators for hatching duck eggs, maintain a temperature of 100°f and humidity from 55°f to 60°f.

Do not hatch duck and hen's eggs together in one incubator as duck eggs require a temperature of lof but a higher rate of humidity. A pan of water kept in the bottom of the incubator helps maintain humidity level.

During incubation period, turn eggs at least 3 to 4 times a day to obtain better percentage of hatchability.

Clean hatching eggs with slightly moist, clean rag before storing to prevent contamination of the developing embryo, or newly hatched chicks.

SOURCE: gov.ph/cat_agriculture

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Thursday, October 26, 2006
Starbucks Copycat Drinks and Pastries

Starbucks is the world's largest multinational chain of coffee shops. Founded in 1971 as a coffee bean retailer, then acquired in 1987 by Howard Schultz, it has acquired and built coffeehouses all over the world. In addition to brewed coffee and espresso beverages, Starbucks shops also serve tea and bottled beverages, pastries, and ready-to-eat sandwiches. Stores in Seattle, Chicago, and other cities are experimenting with hot breakfast options such as ham, egg, and cheese on a muffin and eggs Florentine sandwiches. Some Starbucks stores are inside other retail locations such as supermarkets and bookstores (though these stores are not owned or operated by the company). The company was in part named after Starbuck, a character in Moby-Dick, as well as a turn-of-the-century mining camp on Mount Rainier, Starbo. Its insignia is a stylized two-tailed mermaid and its corporate headquarters are in Seattle, Washington, United States.

The Starbucks franchise here in the Philippines is owned only by Rustan's, so the chance of opening your own Starbucks branch is out of the question. But who said that you can't start your own coffee business? I've searched the internet and compiled these copycat recipes that would make your coffee taste a little like Starbucks.


Starbucks Coffee Frappe
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.
Source: "Starbucks Passion for Coffee"

I N G R E D I E N T S
18 -22 Ice cubes, crushed
7 ounces Double-strength coffee, chilled
2 tablespoons granulated sugar
2 tablespoons flavored syrup of choice (vanilla, hazelnut, -raspberry or other)

Whipped cream, garnish

I N S T R U C T I O N S
Place the ice, coffee, sugar and syrup in a blender. Blend until the frappe is smooth. Pour into a large, tall glass. Garnish with a dollop of whipped cream.

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Starbucks Java Chip Frappuccino®
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

I N G R E D I E N T S
4 tablespoon chocolate syrup
4 tablespoon chocolate chips
4 cups double-strength freshly brewed dark roast coffee
Chopped or crushed ice
Whipped cream (optional)
Chocolate syrup (for drizzle, optional)

I N S T R U C T I O N S
Fill blender half full with chopped or crushed ice. Add all ingredients (except whipped cream) and blend until thick and still icy. Pour into 4 tall glasses, top with whipping cream and drizzle chocolate over the whipped cream.

Serves: 4

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Starbucks Mocha Frappuccino®
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. The are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks..

I N G R E D I E N T S
6 cups double-strength freshly brewed dark roast coffee
2/3 cup unsweetened cocoa powder, plus additional cocoa powder for garnish
2 cups nonfat milk

I N S T R U C T I O N S
Fill ice-cube trays with half of the brewed coffee and place in the freezer. In a bowl, combine the remaining brewed coffee, cocoa powder and milk and stir to dissolve the cocoa. Cover and chill.

When the ice cubes have frozen, transfer them to a kitchen towel and, using a hammer or mallet, crush the cubes. Fill 4 glasses with the crushed ice and divide the coffee-cocoa mixture evenly among them. Dust the top with cocoa powder and serve.

Serves 4.

---

Starbucks Copycat Caramel Scones
From: copycatrecipearchive@yahoogroups.com. These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. The are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

I N G R E D I E N T S
3 cups unbleached all purpose flour
1/2 cup unsalted or salted butter (or margerine)
3/4 cup half and half or light whipping cream
1/3 cup granulated sugar
1/2 teaspoon salt (if unsalted butter is used)
1 tablespoon baking powder
1 cup milk (for best results use whole milk)
1 egg
2 teaspoons vanilla
1 cup butterscotch baking chips

Topping
1/3 cup butterscotch baking chips, fine chopped (use food processor)
1 egg white, slightly beaten
Confectioner's (powdered) sugar (optional)


I N S T R U C T I O N S
Preheat oven to 425 F.

Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Place flour and butter in a medium mixing bowl, combine with your fingers to a coarse meal consistency. Add sugar, baking powder and salt (if used) combine well. Stir in cream, vanilla and egg, blending well to form a soft dough.

Scoop mixture onto baking sheet. Brush tops with beaten egg white; sprinkle ground butterscotch chips over top. Bake until browned - 16-18 minutes. Dust with confectioner's sugar when cool.

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Starbucks Java Float
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. The are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

I N G R E D I E N T S
4 tablespoon chocolate syrup
1 tablespoon chocolate chips
2 cups club soda or sparkling water, chilled
4 scoops coffee ice cream

I N S T R U C T I O N S
In each of 2 tall glasses, stir together 2 Tbsp. of chocolate syrup and 1 cup club soda. Place 2 scoops of ice cream in each glass and serve immediately.

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Starbucks Copycat Meringue Drops
From: Betterbaking. These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. The are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

I N G R E D I E N T S
1/3 cup egg whites
1/2 cup sugar
3/4 cup semisweet chocolate chips
1/2 teaspoon vanilla
1/2 teaspoon almond extract
1 cup chopped walnuts

I N S T R U C T I O N S
Preheat oven to 350ºF. Place rack in lower third of oven. Cover two large baking sheets with parchment paper. In a small metal bowl, beat egg whites, adding sugar slowly, until the whites are stiff but not dry. Using a rubber spatula, carefully stir in melted chocolate, vanilla, almond extract and chopped nuts into egg whites. Drop spoonfuls of batter - about 1 1/2 to 2 tablespoons - onto the parchment lined baking sheets. Bake for 12-15 minutes or until tops are completely dry. Do not overbake. Cool completely in pan before removing with a spatula. 12-18 cookies.

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Starbucks Lemon-Tipped Biscotti
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. The are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

Biscotti
6 tablespoons unsalted butter, at room temperature
1/2 cup granulated sugar
1 tablespoon grated lemon zest
2 large eggs
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
2 cup all-purpose flour
2 teaspoon. baking powder
1/4 tsp. salt
1 cup shelled pistachios, roasted and coarsely chopped For the

Lemon Icing
2 cups sifted confectioners' sugar
1 teaspoon grated lemon zest
1/4 cup lemon juice

Preheat an oven to 375 F. In a large bowl, beat the butter, sugar and lemon zest until well blended. Add the eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition. Stir in the vanilla. In a small bowl, combine the flour, baking powder and salt. Add to the butter mixture and blend thoroughly. Stir in the nuts. The dough will be soft. On a lightly floured work surface, divide the dough in half. Lightly flour each piece and shape it into a log about 1 1/2" in diameter and 9" long. Place the logs about 3" apart on an ungreased baking sheet. Press each log down to make it about 3/4" thick and 3" wide. Bake until puffed and lightly browned on top, about 20 minutes. Cool 10 minutes on the pan, then slide the logs onto a work surface. Using a long, sharp knife, cut each log crosswise into 3/4" thick slices. Make each cut with a single swipe of the blade. Don't use a sawing motion, which will break the cookies. Place the cookies, cut side down, on the baking sheet. (The cookies can be touching.) Bake 10 minutes. Remove from the oven and, using tongs, turn each cookie over. Bake until the biscotti are golden, 10 minutes more. Transfer to wire racks to cool completely.

Icing
In a small bowl, combine the sugar, lemon zest and lemon juice and beat until smooth. Beat in additional drops of lemon juice if necessary to make an icing that will coat the biscotti lightly. Dip one end of each biscotti in the icing, turning to coat the tip evenly. Place on a wire rack until the icing sets. Makes about 2 1/2 dozen Biscotti.

---

Black and White Toffee Bars
Inspired by Starbuck's Toffee Bars.

I N G R E D I E N T S
1 cup plus 2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 teaspoon salt
3/4 cup packed brown sugar
1/2 cup (1 stick) butter, softened (or use 1/4 cup butter and 1/4 cup vegetable shortening
1 teaspoon vanilla extract
1 large egg
1cup (6-ounce package) NESTLÉ TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels
1 cup (6-ounce package) White chocolate chips
1/2 cup chopped toffee candy such as Almond Rocca


I N S T R U C T I O N S
PREHEAT oven to 375° F. Grease 9-inch-square baking pan.

COMBINE flour, baking soda and salt in small bowl. Beat sugar, butter and vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until creamy. Beat in egg; gradually beat in flour mixture. Stir in morsels and chopped toffee. Spread into prepared baking pan.

BAKE for 20 to 23 minutes. Remove pan to wire rack. Cool completely in pan on wire rack; refrigerate for 5 to 10 minutes or until chocolate is set. Cut into bars.

---

Starbuck's Frappuccino
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.
Copycat Recipe Requests at Recipelink.com


This recipe makes 5 different flavors, if desired.

15 empty Starbuck bottles & lids (I mark with permanent marker a letter on 3 lids for the flavor of that batch - i.e. C=coffee, M=mocha, V=vanilla, etc.)

1 1/4 cups sugar
5 tsp. dry pectin
13 3/4 cups 2% milk - or Lactaid 100, 38% less fat (I use this since it has a longer shelf life, even though it costs a little more)
10 Tbsp. Maxwell House Italian Expresso Roast Coffee
5 1/2-3/4 cups water

Flavors -
1 tsp. unsweetenend cocoa or Quick drink mix,
1 Tbsp. of liquid coffee flavorings (sold in grocery store by coffee) vanilla, hazlenut, almond, almond roca, raspberry, irish creme, etc., desired amount of extracts, 1 Tbsp. liquid baking flavorings (i.e. cinnamon, praline, etc.)

1. Brew the 10 Tbsp. of coffee with the 5 1/2-3/4 cups cold water.

2. Get blender out and ready.

3. For each batch of 3 bottles...While coffee is still hot...measure out 2 3/4 cups milk, set aside...in blender, place 1/4 cup sugar, 1 tsp. pectin, any of the above flavorings (or make up your own)-for just plain coffee flavor, do not add any flavors, 1/2 cup of hot coffee and mix a few seconds at a low speed - #5 for me(too high and you get too much froth) to give sugar a chance to dissolve. While running pour in steadily the cold milk. Turn off after only a second or two of being mixed.

4. Pour into 3 prepared bottles.

5. Repeat the above for 4 more batches, changing flavors if desired. I try to do my flavors so that I don't have to rinse out the blender each time (i.e. coffee, vanilla, hazlenut, praline, mocha), saving the strongest flavor until
last.

---

Starbucks Chai Tea
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

Chai

3 cups water
3 cups milk (I use skim)
6-8 black or decaf black tea bags
1/2 cup honey
1 tsp ground cinnamon
1 tsp ground cardamom
1/2 tsp ground nutmeg
1/2 tsp ground cloves (I use less because I don't like too strong a clove taste)
1/2 tsp ground ginger (or a mashed small chunk of fresh)

Bring water and milk to a boil. Add other ingredients, return to boil. Turn off
heat and let steep for 3-5 minutes. Remove tea bags then filter through fine
strainer. Good hot or cold. (I keep it in the refrigerator and microwave it if
I want it hot.)

---

The Starbucks Caramel Macchiato
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

People come to my page, they're probably usually looking for var'aq. But every once in a while someone wants to know how to make a Starbucks Caramel Macchiato. That's understandable -- it's a very tasty drink, very addictive, and in very high demand year-round.

I don't know much of the history of the drink, except that the iced version was brought out in 1999 or 2000 when a wave of requests for an iced version of the drink required Starbucks R&D to standardize on the rather dramatic black-and-tan presentation of the official Iced Caramel Macchiato. Whipped cream was not standard at the time; I can't say if that's still the case as I haven't worked for Starbucks for over a year and a half now, but either way it's a stunning drink.

Made properly, you really should use a glass mug or pint glass for the color gradient effect. Starbucks doesn't do that with the hot drinks, though the to go cups are see-through. And now, the recipe everyone really wants to see when they come here...

Caramel Macchiato

The average coffee mug is probably equivalent to a Tall (12-oz/355 mL). I am not following precise Starbucks standards, though if you must know it's properly one shot of espresso, about .75 oz syrup (.25 oz per 4 oz liquid capacity).

* milk
* espresso
* vanilla syrup
* your favorite caramel sauce

In a regular-sized coffee mug, add vanilla syrup and steamed milk. Top with milk foam and add freshly brewed espresso through the foam. Drizzle with caramel sauce.

Iced Caramel Macchiato

Same ingredients, plus some small ice cubes and (optional) whipped cream

In a pint glass or iced tea glass (we're assuming 16 oz), add vanilla syrup and fill about 3/5 of the way with cold milk. Add ice almost to the top and pour espresso (2 shots would be typical) over the top. If you've done it right, the espresso will mix in only about halfway down without stirring. If adding whipped cream, add it here. Drizzle the top with caramel and enjoy.

---

Starbucks Orange Oatmeal Flat Scones
These are copycat recipes and not the actual propriety recipe that is property of Starbucks. They are approximations. For the real thing, visit your local Starbucks.

2 1/2 cups all purpose flour
2 cups oatmeal
1 cup sugar
1 teaspoon salt
1 tablespoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon baking soda
1/2 cup very cold unsalted butter, cut into small chunks
1 egg
1/2 cup orange juice
1/4 teaspoon Boyajian orange or tangerine oil or extract
1 cup raisins, plumped and dried

Glaze:
milk, sugar, orange zest

Line a large baking sheet with parchment paper (double two sheets if you have them — one inside the other). Preheat oven to 425 F.

In a large bowl, place flour, oatmeal, sugar, salt, baking powder, baking soda and mix together. Cut or rub in butter to make a mealy mixture.

Stir in egg and orange juice. Add orange oil or extract. Mix to make a soft dough. Turn out onto a lightly floured board and knead for a few minutes.

Roll or pat out into a thickness of 1/2 inch. Using a serrated cookie cutter, cut into disks or rounds. Brush with milk and sprinkle with sugar and orange zest.

Bake until nicely browned — about 14 minutes.

---

Now that you have your recipes, why not add a wireless internet hotspot on your area, a few tables and chairs, and wolllaa! Instant coffee shop. Raket na!


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Tuesday, October 24, 2006
What Makes and Entrepreneur

What makes an entrepreneur is a complex question. It includes factors from the environment in which an individual was raised, his or her family situation, and his or her personality traits. This question has been the subject of a great deal of both study and research. The following discussion is a summary of my own observations plus some of the conclusions of others.

About 20 or 25 years ago if you asked almost any expert to describe a successful entrepreneur, you would probably have been given a list similar to this:

- Male
- Only child
- About 35 to 45 years old
- Bachelor's or master's degree in engineering
- Protestant
- Born in the Midwest
- Father owns a hardware store
- As a youth, delivered newspapers and sold lemonade

Should you be concerned if you do not fit this stereotype? Absolutely not. Very few of these are factors that determine whether an entrepreneur succeeds or fails.

However, much recent research and many of my own observations seem to indicate that there are qualities commonly found in successful entrepreneurs, and there are things that you can do if you are concerned about any you may lack. Many writers on this subject seem to be primarily concerned with the qualities found in successful entrepreneurs. I look at the questions a little differently and believe it is equally as important to consider those traits that successful entrepreneurs usually do not have and those traits that simply do not matter.

Personal qualities common in successful entrepreneurs

Motivation to achieve -- In almost every case, successful entrepreneurs are individuals who are highly motivated to achieve. They tend to be doers, people who make things happen. They are often very competitive. Many researchers have concluded that the most consistent trait found in successful entrepreneurs is the sheer will to win, the need to achieve in everything they do. They don't want to come in third, they don't want to come in second, they want to come in first.

The habit of hard work -- Starting a company is hard work. Let no one kid you about that. Some time ago a student reported that one of his other professors said that unless you are prepared to work hard you should not start a company. He asked my opinion, I said the statement was nonsense. I think the correct way to say it is that unless you already work hard you should not start a company. There is a big difference. Starting a company is unlikely to turn a lazy oaf into a raging bull. In his excellent book, Winners, published by Holt, Rinehart and Wilson, Carter Henderson quotes Nolan Bushnell, founder of Atari game company and Pizza Time Theater, as saying it all comes down to one critical ingredient, "Getting off your ass and doing something." In summary, entrepreneurs are almost always very hard workers.

Nonconformity -- Entrepreneurs tend to be independent souls, unhappy when forced to conform or toe the line. They are people who find it difficult to work for others, who want to set their own goals. It is hard to imagine anyone who is more nonconformist than Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, the founders of Apple Computer, or Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft.

Strong leadership -- Starting a new company can be a harrowing experience full of uncertainty and risk. Successfully bringing a small organization through these trying periods requires a lot of leadership skills.

Street smarts -- I do not know quite how to put this. Shrewd or sharp might be a better word. Paul Hawken describes it as "trade skill" in his excellent book Growing a Business, published by Simon and Schuster. We all know owners of some very successful businesses who were lucky to finish high school and never even considered college. Yes, they always seem to make the right moves. Call it common sense, instinct, whatever you want. Successful entrepreneurs seem to have intuitive good judgement when making complex business decisions.

Personal qualities not found in successful entrepreneurs

Compulsive gambling -- Almost without exception people who start companies are not gamblers. They are attracted to situations where success is determined by personal skill rather than chance. They strongly prefer that their destiny be determined by hard work and conscious decisions rather than by the roll of the dice.

High risk-taking - Contrary to popular opinion, entrepreneurs do not take excessive risks. Through careful product and market selection, creative financing, building a good team, and thorough planning, the real risk of starting a new business can be quite low. In the world of small business, optimism is truly cheap and high risk- takers die an early death.

Irrelevant factors

Age -- This simply does not matter any more. During the 1950s, 60s and 70s the large majority of people starting companies were in their 30s and 40s. Not true during the 1980s or today, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak were both in their early 20s when they started Apple Computer. At the other extreme Ray Kroc was 59 when he started the McDonald's restaurant chain.

Sex -- Here again, it just does not matter. Until recently, entrepreneurship was considered by many to be the last bastion of male dominance in the business world. This is no longer true. More businesses are now being started by women than are being started by men. I know many women who have started successful companies in recent years and I do not mean only gift shops or snack bars. I mean building contracting, bicycle manufacturing, printing, software, real estate agencies, newspaper publishing, market research, law firms, accounting firms, and on and on.

Marital status -- This is almost, but not quite, irrelevant. For a woman, being pregnant or having several preschool children may not be the best time to take the step into entrepreneurship. For a man who is the sole support of the family, having two or three children in college may not be the best time. But this in no way means they should not start a business. It means that perhaps they should have it done several years earlier or wait a few years longer. The question is when to start a business--not whether.

Educational level -- Knowledge and skill are very important. How you acquire them is less important. Too many college degrees may be a handicap rather than an asset. One researcher suggested recently that one of the biggest handicaps you can have when you start a business is a PhD. For example, Bill Gates, founder of Microsoft, the country's largest software company, quit Harvard after his sophomore year.

Other -- After writing this section, something gnawed at me. Somehow I felt that I had overlooked an important personal quality. It occurred to me that intelligence is not on my list. People with below-average intelligence should probably not start businesses, but it is not necessary to be a genius. Somehow or other, being smart-whatever that means-ought to be better than being dumb, but I do know quite a few very average people who have started some very successful companies. I watched a television program recently on which the founder of a major company with sales in hundreds of millions of dollars was interviewed. He said he had graduated last in his high school class of 230 students. Then he added that he did not think he graduated at all, but they just wanted to be rid of him. As I said earlier, if you do not fit the mold, don't panic. Every entrepreneur is an individual with different skills, different strengths and weaknesses, and different personality traits. Your smartest strategy as you start or develop your business is to be aware of your own special set of skills, strengths and weaknesses, and build on these.

Upside/Downside: Reward and Risk

Conventional wisdom is that starting a company is an extremely risky proposition. Data from many sources show that a high percentage of new businesses in the United States fail within the first few years. These statistics put fear in the heart of anyone thinking about launching an enterprise. I urge you not to be too concerned; it's not as bad as many people seem to think. In fact, the odds can really be quite good.

First of all, the above quoted data includes all startups: corner grocery stores, gasoline stations, trendy restaurants, and similar businesses that have a notoriously high attrition rate. Conclusion: Avoid these businesses entirely and your chances of surviving will increase dramatically.

Secondly, many people starting businesses are doomed almost before they begin because of poor initial strategy. The most frequent error, in my view, is to select an offering (either product or service) that is distinguished from competitors only by price. Instead, if you find ways to concentrate, differentiate, and innovate in every aspect of the business rather than selling price alone, the odds of success will be better.

Risks and rewards come in many forms. The most obvious are financial, but for many entrepreneurs the financial issues are of less importance than others. The two I want to discuss first are professional and emotional. What different people consider acceptable risk will vary substantially. More things than money must be considered.

The professional rewards of starting a company and succeeding are obviously very great and do not need further discussion.

The most important professional risk of starting a business and failing is the possibility of suddenly becoming unemployed. The question to ask is how two or three years of managing an unsuccessful startup company would compare to the same two or three years with your former employer when it comes to reentering the job market. My belief is that the broad experience and extensive contacts that come with being the head of a company, even though it fails, would make it easier to find a job. If this is true, or even almost true, it means that the professional risks of starting a company are low.

Emotional risks and rewards are another matter-the rewards can be very great but the risks may also be great both for you and your family. Let us look first at the reward side. I started a company from scratch. We had two employees in addition to the four founders. Eight years later, at the time of our merger with Harris Corp., RF employed about 800 people; today it is closer to 1,200. Most of these employees have a spouse and children. There is a multiplier on top of these when you consider the company's supplier and merchants in the community where our employees spend their income. All-in-all I estimate that the company I started in a basement supports 10,000 to 12,000 people in the Rochester area. Is this an emotional reward? You better believe it is!

Starting RF Communications was financially rewarding to the founders. My living standard and lifestyle moved upward considerably but not nearly as far as my income, so suddenly I had resources available for other purposes. As a result of the success of RF Communications I was able to donate an athletic field to each of the two private high schools my children attended plus a dozen or so scholarships that will help other young people get a similar education.

On the downside the emotional risks associated with starting a business can be great whether the business succeeds or fails. Consider how your complete dedication to and immersion in the new venture will affect your marriage and family. When you spend every waking hour dealing with business problems it may not leave much emotional energy to deal with family problems. Are your spouse and children prepared and able to make the emotional investment needed for you to start a business? If you venture goes down, will you be able to prevent your marriage and family from going down as well?

These are scary questions that deserve a lot of attention. While the emotional rewards of entrepreneurship can be very great, so can the risks. Each person must assess whether and how they can handle these.

In addition to these two areas, where the risks and rewards must be carefully balanced, there is a long list of others where only reward is possible and the risk is zero. These include things such as the wish to be your own boss, the desire to be involved in all aspects of the business, getting away from the politics, red tape, and bureaucracy of the large company, and many more. If these things are important to you, and they usually are, there is only an upside.

The above discussion covers many issues but it does not cover many other important ones that may determine whether the new business succeeds or fails, such as: writing a business plan, picking products and markets, controlling cash flow, getting orders, and many others. These are addressed in other parts of this Web page or in books, such as mine, which spend many chapters covering these other issues.

From Start Up: An Entrepreneur?s Guide to Launching and Managing a New Business, © 1999 by William J. Stolze.

SOURCE: MOREBUSINESS.com


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The Six-Step Process to Raising Capital

Obtaining and securing financing is the first hurdle of any business start-up. Whether you are looking towards banks, venture sources, angel financing, or even from your wife or Aunt Gilda, the process of raising capital generally requires a specific sequence of actions. Understanding this process can really improve your chances for success.

Here are the six steps:

1. Finding Investors

Without a doubt, finding potential investors for your business is the hardest part of raising capital. You may start within your family circles, your friends, your business associates and acquaintances. Then you can approach institutional sources of funds, such as banks and even the government. Once you find the right person or institution willing to finance your business, your business plan will do most of the talking. The first step should occupy about half of the entire time used to prepare and present a business plan. Most entrepreneurs fail to do this step well and, consequently, fail at raising capital.

2. The Approach.

During the approach, two things must occur. First, you should seek to reduce tension in your relationship with the venture source. While it may at times seem like an adversarial relationship, it is important to remember your goal is to make money together. Second, the entrepreneur should simultaneously be building a degree of task tension. As relationship tension is reduced, a reciprocal concern about building up the task at hand should occur. The venture source needs to invest capital, and you need to raise capital. Fulfilling your mutual needs is the task you must accomplish together.

3. Qualifying the Source.

After identifying potential sources of funds, the next step is to ask, "Why will they be interested in funding my business?" Every possible funding source has a "hot button" that you need to push for that person to agree with the deal. Not everyone invests in the same deals for the same reasons, as certain benefits among the features will be more important to individual capital sources than others. In fact, the same plan is likely to be supported by different people for different reasons. You need to identify the needs and reasons for investing of your potential money source. Study the fund source's portfolio and needs.

4. Presenting the Business Plan.

The presentation of the business plan is an area that entrepreneurs can be expected to do well. They are so familiar with their product, having lived with it night and day, that they can always make a convincing presentation. However, the benefit to the potential investors is an element that should be sufficiently highlighted. Don't dazzle investors with your knowledge of the latest technology or understanding of the market - stick to explaining the benefits of your business concept.

What is the perceived value of your product vs. what your product actually does? What are its features? Why will everyone need your product or service? What will it replace? What is it most similar to? What will happen to your customers if they don't buy your product or service?

5. Handling Objections.

As an entrepreneur, you should always expect objection to your business plan - from the product concept, to your approach, to your marketing strategies, or any apparent weakness of your plan or your product. Some will also ask you, "What are you going to do that's different, and how are you going to do it better than what is already being done?" In handling objections, the first thing to avoid is to be defensive. Instead, acknowledge the comment, and respond to the objection in a sincere way. Empathize with it, legitimize it, and then introduce new information to counter the objection. Occasionally, objections stem because they are only partially informed, but they are never wrong. Your job is to have all the facts on hand so you can turn the objection around -- turn a no into a yes.

6. Gaining the Commitment.

If the first five steps are handled carefully, then gaining the commitment will be the easiest and least stressful step in the entire process. To gain a commitment, you need to close any objections your potential investors may have had and turn it around in your favor. Remember, your enthusiasm and "entrepreneurial fire" are two elements that most investors will look for.

About the Author:

Lyve Alexis Pleshette is a staff writer of Power Homebiz Guides. For a step-by-step guide to starting a business, order the CD-Rom "Power Home Business Ideas" from PowerHomeBiz.com at http://www.powerhomebiz.com/Index/practicalbizideas.htm


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Monday, October 23, 2006
How to Raise Money to Start a Business

One key to a successful business start-up and expansion is your ability to obtain and secure appropriate financing. Raising capital is the most basic of all business activities. Remember, it takes money to make more money.

Flip open trade publications and business newspapers, and you will be bombarded by reports of abundance of available capital for entrepreneurial start-ups, particularly for the dot.coms. The financial news would have you believe that more money is available for new business ventures than there are good business ideas.

However, while venture capital may be overflowing for the Internet start-ups, the real scenario for small businesses (and worse, home-based businesses) is far different. Capital is hard to come-by, especially if: (a) you do not have a good business idea or business plan that will make rich backers run to you in the hope of multiplying their savings exponentially; and (b) you may have a good business idea, but you do not know anyone who matters. The problem is that most beginning "business builders” doesn’t know what to believe or which way to turn for help.

Then again, business means risk, and success comes to those who focus on their goals and actually do something. Who knows, you may be lucky and dispel stories of “tight money.” You first step should be to start making phone calls -- talking to people, and making appointments to discuss your plans with the people who have money to invest. When you're looking for money, it's essential that you get the word out to as many potential investors as possible.

There are several sources to consider when looking for financing. Don't make the mistake of thinking that the only place you can find the money you need is through the bank or finance company. Explore all of your options before making a decision. These include –

Personal Savings

The first place to look for financing is right at home and personal savings and assets are the easiest source of capital. If you have money set aside, you use it instead of borrowing or rounding up investors. Or, you can take an inventory of items you do not need and have a garage sale. Most people are pleasantly surprised how much cash they can raise in a single weekend. You can also use your stocks, bonds, pension plans, life insurance policies and real estate to raise the needed capital. Those who own homes oftentimes secure equity loans and use the proceeds to start a business.

However, most beginning entrepreneurs don’t have adequate personal savings to fund a business start-up. Others, on the other hand, have savings but refuse to dip into their piggy bank for a variety of reasons. It may be their retirement money or for emergencies; while others would rather use their savings as collateral and borrow against it at a low interest rate.

Family Members and Friends

Next, turn to members of your family or close friends who have faith in you and want to see you succeed. Borrowing from a friend or relative is generally the most readily available source, especially when the capital requirement is smaller. Relatives and people you know need fewer assurances and are more open to your ideas than professional investors. They are also more patient if your business takes longer than expected to get off the ground. Offer to repay them through profit sharing.

If you are borrowing from family members instead of asking them to invest, maintain a very businesslike and impersonal procedure. To avoid putting strain on the relationship, it is better to draw up a formal agreement in order to put the terms of the loan in writing. It is important to view the participants as business associates.

Venture Capitalists

Venture capitalists are professional investors who may be in charge of a large pool of capital gathered from a range of sources. These firms invest in new, even high-risk or speculative businesses without a proven track record, with the potential for rapid growth and high returns in a short time. They generally want equity or part ownership of a business in exchange for substantial returns (25 to 40 percent or more) when they exit typically in three to seven years. Particularly in the Internet sector, several venture capital firms have achieved capital gains of 300 to 500 percent, which are used to offset by a wide margin any losing ventures. These firms are mostly interested in potential projects that require $500,000 or more because of the high cost of investigation, evaluation and administration. While a venture capital firm may receive as many as 1,000 business proposals a year, it will typically investigate less than 10 percent and may actually invest in only 3 or 4 percent.

Angel Investors

Angels are private investors interested in making more on their capital than they can make through traditional markets such as mutual funds or publicly traded stocks. These “angels” can be your accountant, attorney, doctors or other individuals who seek out new businesses to invest in return for equity ownership. Usually providing additional capital in the range of $25,000 to $500,000, expect angel investors to demand high returns for their investments. Relative to venture capitalists, though, angel investors are less demanding and can also be expected to provide expert guidance and mentor the start-up.

As you explain your plan to them, and ask for their advice, casually ask them if they'd mind letting you know of, or steer your way any potential investor they might happen to meet. Do the same with your banker. Give him a copy of your prospectus and ask him if he'd look it over and offer any suggestion for improving it, and of course, let you know of any potential investors. In either case, it's always a good idea to let them know you're willing to pay a "finder 's fee" if you can be directed to the right investor.

Professional people such as doctors and dentists are known to have a tendency to join occupational investment groups. The next time you talk with your doctor or dentist, give him a prospectus and explain your plan. He may want to invest on his own or perhaps set up an appointment for you to talk with the manager of his investment group

Note, however, that most angels and venture capitalists do not invest in home businesses.

Banks

Banks can be your least expensive route to raising capital, as you can get loans that are just about 2 percent above prime. However, you would need assets or profitable and clean credit histories to avail of bank loans. In addition, some banks may require established businesses to provide one third of the equity injection and start-ups up to 50 percent or more. You will also need to have a business plan with adequate documentation demonstrating a projected cash flow that will enable you to repay (on time) the loan with interest. You can, in most instances, borrow small amounts of money from local banks for periods of up to three years. An unsecured loan requires only your signature, but more than likely a secured note will be offered to you. This has lower interest payments than an unsecured note, but will require you to pledge some assets, such as stock, or to have someone guarantee the loan. The bank can also provide you with a credit line, which is a revolving bank account secured against your inventory or accounts receivable that allows you to draw funds against a given total established by your bank.

Industrial Banks

Industrial banks are usually much more amenable to making business loans than regular banks, so be sure to check out these institutions in your area. Insurance companies are prime sources of long-term business capital, but each company varies its policies regarding the type of business it will consider. Check your local agent for the name and directors of another company to invest in your business. Look for a company that can benefit from your product or service. Also, be sure to check at you public library for available foundation grants. These can bet he final answer to all your needs if your business is perceived to the related to the objectives and activities of the foundation.

Advertising

As simple as it seems, one of the easiest ways of raising money is by advertising in a newspaper of a national publication featuring such ads. Your ad should state the amount of money you want-always for more money than you need so you have room for negotiating. Your ad should also state the type of business involved (to separate the curious from the truly interested), and the kind of return you are promising on the investment. On the Internet, several web sites offer match-up services for investors and capital seekers. Garage.com, for example, assists entrepreneurs in the high technology sector in securing seed-level financing by presenting their business requirements to a pool of high quality investors.

Credit Cards

Some entrepreneurs use several credit cards to provide a substantial cash bankroll for the business start-up. In fact, credit cards are used by nearly one-third of start-ups. It is relatively easy to obtain, and eases the bookkeeping systems. However, using credit cards to launch a business is the least wise, since credit card money is the most expensive money that you can borrow. If you intend to carry a balance, the annual interest charges (12 to 21 percent) are quite steep. While credit card advances is one of the most commonly used sources for start-up financing, it is dangerously close to gambling.

Small Business Investment Companies

Don't overlook the possibilities of the Small Business Investment Companies in your area. Look them up in your telephone book under "Investment Services." These companies exist for the sole purpose of lending money to businesses that they feel have a good chance of making money. In many instances, they trade their help for a small interest in your company.

Business Development Commissions

Many states have Business Development Commissions whose goal is to assist in the establishment and growth of new businesses. Not only do they offer favorable taxes and businesses expertise, most also offer money or facilities to help a new business get started. Your Chamber of Commerce is the place to check for further information on this idea.

Life Insurance

Another frequently overlooked source of start-up funds is borrowing from life insurance. Loans are almost always obtainable against policies with savings features.

Money Broker or Finder

These people take your prospectus and circulate it with various known lenders or investors. They always require an up-front or retainer fee, and there is no way they can guarantee to get you the loan or the money you want. There are many very good money brokers, and there are some that are not so good. They all take a percentage of the gross amount that's finally procured for your needs. The important thing is to check them out fully; find out about the successful loans or investment plans they've arranged, and what kind of investor contacts they have all of this before you put up any front money or pay any retainer fees.

Start thinking about the idea of inviting investors to share in your business as silent partners. Think about the idea of obtaining financing for a primary business by arranging financing for another business that will support the start-up, establishment and development of the primary business. Consider the feasibility of merging with a company that's already organized, and with facilities that are compatible or related to your needs. Give some thought to the possibilities of getting the people supplying your production equipment to co-sign the loan you need for start-up capital. This is truly the age of creative financing.

The truth is this: Now is the time to make your move. Now is the time to act. The person with a truly viable business plan, and determination to succeed will make use of every possible idea that can be imagined. And the ideas I've suggested here should serve as just a few of the unlimited sources of monetary help available and waiting for you!

Investment dollars are not out of the question for a home business, but it isn’t a likely situation unless your business has the potential to gain significant stock value. This also means that your company will need to be larger than just an extension of yourself. To attract investors, you will have to make the case that the business could be sold at some point to another person or company that could pick up where you left off and continue to grow the business. If this is the case with your enterprise, you might consider going through the pain to gain investors, but be prepared to learn how the system works before you send off proposals.

How to Raise Money to Start a Business
by Isabel M. Isidro
Managing Editor


=====
For a step-by-step guide to starting a business, order the CD-Rom "Power Home Business Ideas" from PowerHomeBiz.com at http://www.powerhomebiz.com/Index/practicalbizideas.htm



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Getting A Bank Loan Checklist

If you are a start-up entrepreneur, getting a bank loan is like going through the needle. It is tough, but not totally impossible. You just need to do your homework well. Here are the kinds of preparation you need to do to increase the chances of getting that bank loan approved.

Borrowing to start a business is not easy. Getting a bank loan, particularly for a start-up business and a newbie entrepreneur, is like going through the needle. More so if your business is home-based and on the Internet.

Banks favor an established businessperson with a solid credit rating, a sizeable bank account, experience in the business they propose to enter, and business plans that show the ability to repay the loans. If you are not one, then you need to double your preparations to convince the banker to lend you that much needed start-up capital. If your business is a start-up, bankers will need to know as much as possible about you and your business. Lenders will ask for an awful lot of questions, and it takes a great deal of work to put it all together.

However, many small business owners often make the mistake of not being adequately prepared when going to the bank to the loan. Surprisingly, many loan applicants don't even have the slightest idea how or when they intend to repay the money they requested. Often they don't even know how much money they need. When asked how much money they want to borrow, many people give these two common responses: "How much money can I get?" and "As much as possible." Is it any wonder that lenders say no?

The bottom line is that it pays to do your homework before you ask for a loan. Bear in mind that the probability of getting your loan approved goes up if the degree of risk associated with lending you money goes down. To lower your risk and improve your odds of getting the loan, you need to anticipate the question lenders will ask you. You need to present your banker insights into your business that may enable him or her to easily approve your loan. For example, prior to filling out a loan application, you should know:

1. Exactly how much money you need? Be as exact as possible, adding a little for contingencies and the unforeseen extra expenses.

2. How you plan to use the money? Telling the banker that you want a loan to "have working capital" to the fastest way for your loan to be denied. There are only three things you can do with a loan - to buy new assets, pay off old debts, or to pay for operating expenses. Be specific as possible.

3. How long it will take you to repay the loan? Your cash flow projections will help you formulate a repayment time frame for the loan. This is the time when you need to convince the banker of the good potential of your business and its long-term profitability.

4. What rate of interest rate can you afford? There is no sense in tying yourself up in a loan that will squeeze out your profits and bleed your business dry. It does not benefit you to take on debt that cannot be repaid.

5. What can you use as security for the loan? A loan is a risk, and the bank needs to make sure that they can get their money back. You need to present your personal guarantee to repay the loan and collateral. Your goal is to convince the banker of the value of your collateral.

Of course, don't forget to present that all-important written business plan explaining in detail your business objectives, projected earnings for the next one to three years, marketing strategy, and other relevant information. Be sure your marketing strategies are outlined in detail to lend credence to your sales projections.

In addition to your business plan, you need to support your loan application with numbers - preferably good ones. Part of that homework is to gather the financial data that will enable you to prove to lenders that you are a good credit risk. In short, this entails putting together a credit history that includes the following:


* Personal financial statement listing your assets and liabilities
* A list of all credit cards and their current balances
* All outstanding loans, including original balances, amounts outstanding, and current monthly payments
* Total monthly mortgage or rent payments
* Net monthly income from your home-based business, an outside job or other sources
* Checking and savings account balances
* The value of your automobile(s), including original cost, balance owed, and current monthly payments
* The current value of all property, including real estate, stocks and bonds

Getting a loan is going through a hard road. Bankers need to be sure that they are not taking inordinate risks with you. Your role as the loan applicant is to convince the bankers that you and your business are good credit risks.

By George Rodriguez
Power Homebiz Guides Staff Writer

About the Author:

George Rodriguez is a staff writer of Power Homebiz Guides. For a step-by-step guide to starting a business, order the CD-Rom or Download "Power Home Business Ideas" from PowerHomeBiz.com at http://www.powerhomebiz.com/Index/practicalbizideas.htm



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Transforming plastic junk into works of art

LUCENA CITY—Wanting to have additional income to support his wife and 2-year-old daughter, Marlon Remo, 23, got his creative juices flowing and started transforming plastic junk items into simple but exquisite works of art.

From out of empty plastic bottles of 1.5-liter soft drinks, Remo meticulously carves different models of miniature trees and flower plants with the use of sharp, pointed scissors and gas-fueled disposable lighter.

He started his craft last January after his Manila-based nephew, James, stayed with him for a few months in his shack in the rural village of Domoit. [continue reading at INQ7.net]


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Orchid Production Guide

Orchids (Orchidaceae family) are the largest and most diverse of the flowering plant (Angiospermae) families, with over 800 described genera and 25,000 species. Some sources give 30,000 species, but the exact number is unknown since classification differs greatly in the academic world. Revisions of different genera occur on a monthly basis and this will increase with the growing use of genetic research and biochemistry. There are another 100,000+ hybrids and cultivars produced by horticulturists, created since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century. The Kew World Checklist of Orchids includes about 24,000 accepted species. About 800 new species are added each year. Orchids, through their interactions with pollinators and their symbiosis with orchid mycorrhizal fungi, are considered by some, along with the grasses, to be examples of the most advanced (derived) floral evolution known.

All orchid species are protected for the purposes of international commerce under CITES as potentially threatened or endangered in their natural habitat, with most species listed under Appendix II. A number of species and genera are afforded protection under Appendix I, including all of Paphiopedilum and all of Phragmipedium. Many other species are protected by both international and national legislation, while hybrids are specifically exempted.

MORPHOLOGY

Growth Habit

Orchids are grouped according to two basic growth habits, namely: monopodials and sympodials.

Monopodials are orchids with one main stem with grow taller every year. The stem lengthens, adding new leaves to the top and aerial roots occasionally form along main stem. Flowers are always borne laterally (between leaves) and successively from older nodes towards young nodes. Monopodials include Phalaenopsis, Arachnis, Vanilla, Aerides, Vandopsis, Vanda, Phyncostylis, Ascocentrum and Trichoglottis.

Sympodials are orchids with creeping ground stem or rhizome which sends out shoot which eventually develops into stem and leaves. This new growth produces its own roots and leaves at maturity. Flowers are formed at the terminals or at the sides of the stem. After flowering, another shoot is formed at the base of the proceeding growth to repeat the cycle. The stem is sometimes thickened and fleshy, forming pseudobulbs. Cattleya, Dendrobium, Oncidium, Coelogyne, Bulbophyllum, are examples of orchid general with sympodial growth habit.

Flower

Despite the complexity of the variety of orchid flowers, the structure is like any monocot flower. There are three similar sepals and petals but one of the petals is highly modified into an attractive structure known as labellum or lip. The lip attracts pollinators and serves as landing platform for pollinating insects. In the center of the flower is an organ called gynostagium, gynandium, or column. On the inner side of the column is the stigma, a shallow depression which produces a sticky solution where pollinia are deposited.

Orchid Plants

Unlike seeds of other flowering plants, orchid seeds are so minute consisting of an embryo with little or no stored food. Orchid seeds are produced literally by the thousands or even millions (Cattleya labiata) but only a few develop into mature plants.

Life of orchid seed is very critical during early stages of germination. Unless a symbiotic relationship with a beneficial fungus is established, orchid seed will die. The fungal aid or mycorrhiza is a mass of fungus hyphae, usually of species Rhizoctonia. During germination, mycorrhiza infects the basal end of the seed and releases an enzyme which converts starch, an energy of germination and enhances further its development. Orchids are limited to the environment with suitable fungus, where sugar and amino-nitrogen compounds are readily available for seed germination.

GENERA/SPECIES/HYBRIDS

The family Orchidacease consists of about 20,000 to 35,000 species distributed into 800 genera. This constitutes roughly 10% of all flowering plants in the plant kingdom. There are many hybrids and cultivated forms which continue to increase at an average rate of more than 1,000 per year.

Many endemic species are found in the Philippines, which have gained worldwide recognition by orchidists. There are about 130 genera and 941 species, of which 25 genera and 140 species based on consecutive estimates are of commercial value.

Dendrobium

The genus Dendrobium contains a very large number of heterogenous species. It has erect, cane-type pseudobulb and bears flowers with relatively long vase-like.

This group is naturally distributed in warm and humid areas, thus resulting hybrids require warm and humid environment with abundant sunlight for optimum growth and development.

In the Philippines, the Dendrobium group includes among others Den. Taurinum Lindl., Den. Stratioles Reichb. f., Den. Superbeins Reichb.f., Den. Phalaenopsis Fitsp., Den Biggibum Lindl.

Hybrids

In the Philippines, the following Dendrobium hybrids appear promising for cutflower production: Purple: Den. Tomie, Jacquelyn Concert, Den. Norman Jackson, Den. Vera Patterson x Den. Betty Hecht; Off-White- Den. Jacquelyn Thomas; Yellow: Den. May Neal Crosses, Mary Mac, Bethy Ho; White: Den Water Oumme, Den. Neo Hawaii, Den. Jack Hawaii, Den. Multico White, Den. Jacqueline Thomas x Den. Alice Spalding, Den. Singapore White.

Vanda

This group is generally sun-loving and robust with colorful, beautifully-shaped flowers, heavy substance and long-lasting.

Vandas are divided into three: 1) strap-leaf; 2) terete; 3) semi-terete.

  1. Strap-leaf Vandas - These are epiphytes with flat, channeled leaves. These include V. Sanderana, V. Luzonica, V. Lamellata, V. Coerules, V. Limbata. Some strap-leaf hybrids for cutflower have performed and flowered well locally. These are: V. Rotchildiana, V. Veraruth, V. Lenavat, V. Laurel Yap and V. Onomea.
  2. Terete Vanda - Mostly terrestial plants with cylindrical, pencil-like leaves. Most commercially important hybrid is V. Miss Joaquin.
  3. Semi-terete Vanda - highly floriferous, making them desirable for cutflower. These are derived from crossing terete hybrid with strap leaf species/hybrid.

The following hybrids are found to flower well under local conditions: V. Josephine van Brero, V. Tanancy Yan, V.T.M.A., V. Patricia Low, V. Emma van Davente and V. Velthius crosses.

CATTLEYA AND ITS ALLIES

Modern Cattleyas consists of a complex group of hybrids created by combining cattleya species or hybridization with closely allied genera such as Laelia, Brassavola, Broughtonia. Known as "Cattleya Alliance", these are natives in Brazil, Columbia, Central America and Mexico. Genus Cattleya is a very interesting diversified group of orchids with broad spectrum of colors and types.

Some of the more famous hybrids are:

  1. Purple Cattleyas, like Lc. Bonanza, Blc. Norman's Bay, Bc. Culminant;
  2. White Cattleyas, like C. Bow Bells, C. Bob Betts, C. General Patton, and C. General Japhet;
  3. Semi-Alba Cattleyas - also caled white with colored lip. Hybrids derived from C. Mossiae and C. Warscewiczis which are white with purple lips;
  4. Yellow Cattleyas - Blc. Malworth, Blc. Jane Helton, Blc. Malvern and Lc. Lorraine Shirai; and
  5. Red Cattleyas - Slc. Falcon "Alwanderi", Slc. Jewel Box, Lc. Desert Orange and Lc. Rojo.

PHALAENOPSIS

The graceful bearing of the Phalaenopsis, whether native species or advanced hybrids is quite pleasing to the eye. The long, slender flower stalk bears the flower high and the arcs away from the leaves appearing fragile yet regal.

Some promising species are P. Amabilis, P. Stuartiana, P. Schilleriana, P. Equestris, P. Leuddemaniana and P. Sanderara.

The following hybrids are promising for cutflower production:

  1. Large White - Phal Anne Cavaco, P. Grace Palm, P. Dos Pueblos and P. Quisumbing;
  2. White with Red Lip - Phal. Eva Lou, P. Queen Emma and P. Ruby lips; and
  3. White Stripes - Phal. Percy Porter

GROWTH REQUIREMENTS

Basically, the growth requirements of any plants are temperature, water, light, aeration and nutrition. These are the environmental factors which a good grower should try to stimulate for each type of orchids.

Temperature - cool-growing orchids prefer night temperature of 10oC to 18.3oC (150 oF-65 oF) and 15.6 oC to 21oC (60 oF-70 oF) day temperature, like Cymbidiums, Odontoglossums and some Phaphiopedilums.

For the intermediate group like Cattleyas, some Dendrobiums and Oncidiums, night temperature needed is 12.8 oC to 15 oC (55 oF-60 oF) and day temperature ranges from 18.3 oC to 21 oC (65 oF-75 oF).

Most orchids grown in the Philippines are warm-growing where night temperature is below 18.3oC and day temperature rising to 21oC to 32 oC. thse temperatures are ideal for growing Renanthera, Vandas, Phalaenopsis, Aerides, Trichoglottis and Dendrobiums.

Light - sun-loving orchids are Arachnis, Renanthera, Arandas, and terete and semi-terete Vandas.

Partial shade orchids need lower light intensity for healthy growth. Example: Dendrobium, Phalaenopsis, Cattleyas, and strap leaf Vandas.

Orchid plants which receive enough light have short plump stems with yellowish-green leather leaves. Those receiving too much sunlight are yellowish, stunted and even scorched. Those under too much shade become green, soft and succulent with thin spindly stems.

Water - generally, orchids prefer an atmosphere where relative humidity ranges from 50% to 85%. A constantly saturated atmosphere (100% relative humidity) is just as harmful as constantly dry environment. High humidity and relatively low night temperature are conducive to the development of many diseases and pathogens especially soft rot. Growers often water the plants early in the morning so that before nightfall, the leaves are already dry. During sunny days, it may be necessary to increase humidity of the atmosphere by misting or wetting orchid house floor to enhance vaporization.

The need and frequency of watering depend on interacting factors, such as size of containers, potting media, temperature, light intensity and air movement. Orchids in large containers dry out more slowly than those in smaller pots. Plants in baskets, twigs and slabs require more water than those in pots. During drier months, more frequent watering is required. Plants suffering from lack of water become flaccid and stems and pseudobulbs become shrivelled.

Aeration - orchids must have free circulating air around them. Orchids are found where there is constant breeze. Stagnant air does not allow drying of potting medium and foliage.

Nutrition - apply fertilizer either through liquid or dry method. By liquid feeding, dissolve water soluble salts and apply resulting dilute solution to plant.

The amount and kind of fertilizer required by orchids depend upon growing conditions, potting media, species and stage of development.

Young seedlings are usually given dilute solution of nitrogenous fertilizers or complete fertilizers with higher nitrogen content plus phosphorous and potassium (4-1-1 or 2-1-1). Pig manures, chicken or fish emulsion may be prepared and applied once a week or once a month. As plant gets older, increase phosphorous and potassium level correspondingly.

Generally, under conditions of more frequent rainfall, practice more frequent fertilization as leaching is higher. When plants are dormant or inactive, do not fertilize plants. Plants exposed to higher light intensities also require higher fertilizer or nutrients than those grown under heavier shade.

Potting and Repotting - potting of orchids varies according to genera or species.

For Cattleyas, some growers use clay pots with charcoal as potting medium. Remember not to over pot them as medium remains wet for a long time in big pots. Place the bulb close to rim of pot with the lead towards center.

An old Cattleya needs repotting when the plant has overgrown its pot and when potting materials has deteriorated.

For Vandas and Ascocendas, small seedlings are potted with little osmunda fiber and a little charcoal. For older plants, coarse tree fern or charcoal maybe used for potting. Another method is by mounting them in twigs on driftwoods or by hanging them in wooden baskets.

For Dendrobium, pot them in clay pots or mount them on driftwoods. For large-scale production, clay pots with charcoal are ideal.

For Phalaenopsis, mount them in acacia or kakawati wood cuttings, or fern slabs. Or mount them in pots with charcoal and little osmunda fiber.

In potting, the general rule to remember is to allow quick and complete drainage of the potting medium.

Some types of orchids are planted directly in well-drained bed or in soil pots.

PROPAGATION

There are two groups of propagating orchids; asexual (vegetative propagation) and sexual (seed and embryo culture).

Asexual or Vegetative Propagation

Vegetative propagation can be done in any of the following methods:

  1. Division - Cattleya, Dendrobium, Paphiopedilum and Cymbidium can be multiplied through division. Separate three to four canes or bulbs from mother plant to form new plants by cutting through rhizome and pot them individually.
  2. Formulation of Keikis and offshots - occasionally, a bud will give rise to a young plant at the top, side of pseudobulbs, canes or at the nodes of flowering stem. The Hawaiians call these young plantlets from vegetative or flowering stem 'keikis'. Filipinos call them 'anak'. Once the young new roots develop, remove plantlets and pot separately.
  3. Top cutting - monopodial orchids, such as Vandas, Ascocendas, Arachnis, Renanthera, Trichoglottis, and even Phalaenopsis and Doritis, are best propagated by top cutting. When plant becomes leggy, cut off top part, retain few roots and pot it separately. New roots develop readily by top cutting.
  4. Tissue Culture - Tissue culture is one of the most rapid methods of multiplying vegetative plant. It develops new plants in an artificial medium under aseptic conditions from very small parts of plants, such as shoots tip, root tip, pollen grain. Thousands or even millions of identical plants can be produced from a small tissue in a relatively short time.

Sexual Propagation or Seed Embryo Culture

Orchid sexual propagation is done through seed embryo culture. Orchid seed is so minute, devoid of stored food for seed germination. However, during germination, fungi infect orchid seeds and help convert complex starch to simple sugars, which serve as energy source. That fungi and orchids have symbiotic relationship during germination.

Under artificial or laboratory conditions, a sterile artificial medium with sugar and other nutrients is required. Through research, an excellent medium for growing seeds without fungi was developed. Inside the bottle where orchid seedling is grown is a miniature glasshouse which protect seedlings from unfavorable environmental conditions. Using artificial media has insured the growing of nearly all orchid seeds into mature plants.

  1. Flasking and reflasking or protocorms - when orchid seed or embryo is planted in a culture bottle, numerous seedlings germinate in a very limited space with little available food. The first sign of successful germination is when orchid seed starts to swell and turns green. As growth continues, the embryo becomes bigger and assumes a flattened top shape called protocorm. A small amount of seed sown produce hundreds of tiny photocorms growing in limited space. At this stage, transplant them into fresh medium and table for further development and rapid growth.
  2. Composting and Repotting Seedlings - Orchid seedlings are ready to be transplanted from culture bottles when roots and leaves are fully developed. Dendrobiums may be potted after 4 to 6 months. Vandas, Phalaenopsis and Cattleyas in 6 to 8 months after reflasking before seedlings are ready for community pots. Seedlings should be potted only in sterile potting medium and pots to avoid damping-off.

    Potting medium may consists of sterilized fine Osmunda fibers, charcoal, chopped tree fern (paslak).

    After removing seedlings from bottles, wash out all agar from seedlings and wash them in fungicide suspension. Drain excess moisture and sort out seedlings according to size. Small seedlings are planted in community pots, while the bigger ones are potted individually in small pots.

FLOWERING

Like most plants, orchids must attain a certain degree of vegetative growth before they are capable of flowering. This is referred to as the stage of ripeness to flower.

For Phalaenopsis, the minimum number of leaves is 3 before they will flower, 8 in Vandas, and 14 in Aranda. Vegetative growth of seedlings can be accelerated to attain the stage of ripeness to flower. Optimum growing conditions such as high temperature, humidity, adequate and continuous light, frequent application of dilute fertlizer have shown hastening of flowering in Vanda and Phalaenopsis.

Factor affecting flower bud initiation

  • Photoperiodism - is the development of plants as conditioned by the length or duration of light. There are 3 orchid categories based on their response to photoperiod: 1) short-day; 2) day-neutral; and 3) long-day groups.
  • Temperature - for some orchids, low temperature is required to induce flowering. Temperature interacts with photoperiod as regards to flower induction. Some orchids required low temperature to induce flowering, as follows: Cymbidium, Cattleya Mossiae; Dendrobium, Phaphiopedium, Phalaenopsis, Schilleriana.

HARVESTING

Orchids flowers do not mature until 3 to 4 days after they open. It is important to know how old the blooms are before harvesting. Flowers cut before they mature will not hold up nor last as longer as the matured flowers. Spray-type orchid present no problem. Each floret opens 1 ½ to 2 days apart. If 3 or more flowers are open on the spike, the lower flower is mature and can be separated.




SOURCE: Department of Agriculture, Philippines


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7-11 Store Franchise

7-Eleven® is the leading convenience store chain in the Philippines for over 20 years, and became the country’s first franchisor in convenience retailing when we awarded our first franchisee in 1998.

Today, over 90 stores are operated by our Franchisees; entrepreneurs and business partners who are dedicated to giving 7-Eleven® customers what they want when they want it.

7-Eleven® provides:
• a reliable, fresh assortment of high-quality products
• speedy transactions
• every day fair prices
• a clean, safe and friendly environment to shop.

7-Eleven® provides an opportunity for entrepreneurs and business partners to operate their own convenience store with the leading name in the business. If you are a goal-oriented individual who wants to grow with a well-established retailer, we invite you to take a look at what the 7-Eleven® franchise system has to offer.

What We Offer

Philippine Seven Corporation gives you the chance to operate your own business by having access to 7-Eleven® expertise, business operating systems and support of a highly successful global corporation.

You need determination to do it, the smarts to get it done, the power to motivate your employees and the financial commitment to make it all happen. It can be a rewarding experience for those willing to take the challenge.

7-Eleven® offers:

- A popular and reliable global brand with a wholesome image. The top-of-mind convenience store among customers in the Philippines and the third most recognized brand in the world;
- An established retail operating system proven over 20 years of retail experience;
Access to 7-Eleven®‘s logistics and distribution resources;
- Continuous developmental marketing, product R&D, and operational support;
- A comprehensive 6-week training program on the operation and management of a 7-Eleven® store;
- Assigned Operations Field Consultant (OFC) who visits with the Franchisee at least once a week to provide counsel on every aspect of the business;
- Monthly financial and marketing records prepared by 7-Eleven® for the franchisee

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What are the qualifications of a 7-Eleven® franchisee?
A. You love a good challenge, ready to put in hardwork, manage people and monitor finances, be a creative salesperson and help foster a shopping environment that entices your customers.

• A self-driven entrepreneur;
• Knows how to motivate his staff;
• Willing to directly oversee the operations of a 7-Eleven®
• Service oriented, hardworking and possess strong entrepreneurial skills
• Financially capable to fund the investment
• Must not and is not directly or indirectly engaged in any similar business in conflict with 7-Eleven®

Q. How much is the investment required for a 7-Eleven®?
A. The financial requirement ranges from P3 to P7 Million.

Q. What is included in the investment?
A. The investment includes the operational rights of the store, equipment and facilities, furniture and fixtures, air-con system, signage, and initial inventory.

Q. If I don't have a location can I apply for a franchise?
A. Yes, you can still apply. You will have the option to choose between a new store, and an existing store.

Q. Can a corporation apply for a franchise?
A. Yes, a corporation may apply the franchise, but it is the required that the majority shareholder be the principal applicant and attends the training.

Q. How much is the return on investment?
A. The convenience store profitability is dependent on several factors such as; satisfying customer’s needs; how well you implement and work the 7-Eleven® operating principles; sales performance; and your ability to control operating expenses. Other questions on financial viability will be discussed only during the interview process.

Q. What is the required lot size or floor area?
A. The floor area for a 7-Eleven® store is ideally 120 square meters.

Q. How long is the training program?
A. The franchisee is required to successfully complete a 6-week full time training program which is combined classroom and in-store.

Q. Who will provide the manpower to operate the store?
A. Store manpower salaries and benefits will be provided by the Franchisee


Lease out your property or convert your existing business to a 7-Eleven® Store!?

Are you a property owner or do you run a business with a prime location looking to leverage the strength of a global retailer for growth? There’s no time like the present to lease out or convert your business and franchise a 7-Eleven® Store, the Philippines’ leader in convenience store retailing.

7-Eleven® is looking for energetic property and business owners who share our passion for retailing and have a desire to serve customers. If you an existing business located in a prime location in any part of Metro Manila, and the major provinces, town proper, and thoroughfares in Luzon, we would like to discuss this business opportunity with you!

Minimum requirements include:

located in a prime location such as business and call center districts, transit stations, factory, residential and schools areas
Preferably a corner location with double frontage, or a non-corner location with a 7 meter frontage


QUALIFICATIONS

You need to be an ambitious, entrepreneurial person who is willing to assume the risks - and reap the rewards of owning your own business.

Our company seeks the right individual who will operate selected 7-Eleven® Foodstore:

- Ability to fund investment requirement
- Willing to undergo full-time, 6 weeks training
- Willing to devote time to oversee day to day operations
- Willingness to work within the franchisor's guidance
- Ready to put hardwork, manage people, monitor finances, and be a creative salesperson and help foster a shopping environment that entices your customers.
- Must not and is not directly or indirectly engaged in any similar business in conflict with 7-Eleven®

If you are the entrepreneur described above, then we may interest you to be our partner by operating a 7-Eleven® Foodstore.

We will support you with the expert advice and assistance only a trusted industry leader can give. Our vast array of operations, marketing, and technical support systems are based on our retail experience spanning over 20 years, serving thousands of customers in 269 stores, 24 hours daily.

CONTACT INFORMATION

The Franchise Manager
Philippine Seven Corporation
7th Floor, Columbia Tower,
Ortigas Ave., near corner EDSA,
Mandaluyong City
Philippines
Hotline: +63 (02)726-9968
Fax : +63 (02)705-5229
Mobile : +63 (920)950-8651
email: franchising@7-eleven.com.ph


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Jackfruit Farming and Products

Jackfruit scientifically known as Artocarpus heterophyllius, lam, locally known as “nangka” or “langka” is a favorite dessert of Filipinos, it is one of the most widely grown fruit crops in the Philippines. It was reported that this fruit is one of the famous in the world because it produces the largest edible fruit that weighs as much as 50kg.

Many people believe that the leaves of the jackfruit tree can cure skin diseases. The bast of the tree is utilized in making rope and clothing. Cebuanos use the wood of the jackfruit tree in making excellent guitars and ukeleles, that’s why jackfruit orchards are becoming increasingly popular in Cebu.

More and more farmers are becoming aware of the versatility of the jackfruit and they are exploring still other possible uses for it. Aside from food, the jackfruit is also used for commercial and noncommercial purposes. The fruit, trunk, leaves, and roots can be utilized for household use or can be processed commercially.The trunk can be used as lumber or building material. The leaves can be used as medicine, fodder for animals, and compost. It latex can be used as paste or glue. The seeds can be used as food, for human consumption, feeds or planting materials while the roots can be used as handle for farm implements.

Jackfruit grows best in deep, sandy loam to clay loam soils of medium fertility with good drainage. Fertility of the soils of medium fertility with good drainage. Fertility of the soil should be considered because of the rapid exhaustion of soil nutrients taken by the plants. The ideal pH of the soil for jackfruit ranges from 5 to 6.5. Distinct variations have been observed by the National Seed Industry council in Los Baños, Laguna and the Mandaue Experiment Station in Cebu city.

VARIETIES

Several varieties of jackfruit are grown in the Philippines, however, the most important cultivars are the Sinaba and Tinumbaga.
• Sinaba variety has thick flesh, small seed, and good eating quality.
• Tinumbaga variety has thinner flesh, a stronger aroma, and sweeter taste than Sinaba.

Other varieties identified for commenrcial production in Eastern Visayas.

PROPAGATION

Jackfruit is usually propagated by seeds or by asexual propagation. Farmers who propagate by seeds should select healthy, vigorous, and disease-resistant seeds from productive mother trees.

A sexual propagation can be done by enriching or grafting. Among the grafting methods, cleft grafting appears to be the most effective as it is able to counter the devastating effects of a typhoon which usually destroys tall trees. A cleft grafted tree is high in genetic quality, grows short but strong in stature. It’s branches tend to spread sidewards.

ILLUSTRATIVE STEPS IN CLEFT GRAFTING



a) Healthy rootstock cutback to the point of grafting.
b) Healthy rootstock showing vertical incision. Shape its base into a 2-3cm.
c) Scion showing wedge cut base for easy insertion.
d) Scion inserted into the rootsock. See to it that at least one side of the graft has cambiums of both stock and scion aligned. This will ensure effective union of the graft.
e) Graft secured firmly with a budding tape. Tie the graft with a plastic tape starting from the lower portion going up. Just apply enough pressure to facilitate union without destroying the growing portion. Too much water may hamper growth and prevent union. Cover the graft with a loose wind of plastic strip and cover further with a 1” x 10” plastic wrapper.
f) Scion starting to grow.

Plant seeds in seedboxes or tin cans. Clear and clean the field at least one year before transplanting seedlings to a permanent site. A few weeks before planting,
dig holes about 60 to 80 centimeters in diameter and 40 to 50 centimeters deep. When planting, fill holes with fertile surface soil instead of subsoil dug out of the holes.



Before transplanting, prune-two-thirds of the leaves of the seedlings. Cut leafy brnaches to prevent excessive moisture loss and take special care when transplanting because the jackfruit has a delicate root system.



Also, planting distance should be no less than 10 to 12 meters between trees.

Cultivate the plants. Remove all weeds within a radius of one meter around the tree. Prune trees regularly to remove unnecessary twigs and branches.

FERTILIZATION AND IRRIGATION

Growing seedlings need ample nitrogen fertilizer while bearing trees need regular applications of phosphorous and potash.

1.) In the absence of soil analysis, apply as basal either manure or compost at the rate of 3kgs per plant or 2 metric tons per hectare. One month after planting, apply 100-150g ammonium sulfate per tree. After six months, apply an equal amount of 100-150g ammonium sulfate and towards the end of the rainy season. Organic fertilizer is advisable to apply around the trees. When trees start bearing fruits and during the start of the rainy season, apply 1/2kg-2kg complete fertilizer and 200g-300g muriate or potash (0-0-60) per tree. Every six months thereafter, apply complete fertilizer at the rate of 1 1/2kg-3kg per tree.

2.) Water requirement is less critical in jackfruit production,
however, irrigate the farm during extreme drought.

WEEDING

Periodic ring weeding and underbrush shall be done every three (3) months.

PRUNING

Prune trees at two (2) years of age. Cut the top of the main stem leaving 2-3 meters above the ground to regulate the height. Apply fungicide on resulting wounds.

Pruning consists of the removal of small unproductive branches as well as diseased and insect-damaged ones. Since fruits are usually produced on the trunk and large branches, the removal of unwanted branches would give more light to the developing fruits.

In Thailand, a uniform system of pruning is followed, that is, by pruning the main trunk well above the bud union to induce the production of multiple branches close to the ground. Allow four or main branches to grow to carry the fruits, instead of distributing the heavy fruits on the main trunk and the smaller over to the side branches. This, system also opens the center of the tree for better light penetration and air movement.

PEST AND DISEASES

1.) Fruit fly - Like most fruit rrees, jackfruit is vulnerable
to fruit fly infestation, a most destructive pest. The fruit fly lays its eggs under the skin of the fruit and which hatch in 5-6 days. The larvae work their way into the fruit, eventually causing rot and making it unfit for market. The larva comes out of the fruit and falls to the ground to pupate in the soil. An adult lays about 100 eggs in one oviposition.

To control - Wrap fruits with empty cement bags or jute sacks. Spray wrappers with pesticide to reduce fruit damage.

2.) Twig borer - Borers attack the twigs and cause the affected twigs to dry up. An adult borer is slight gray in color and about 2 cm long.

To control - Cut off all affected shoots and twigs and destroy them by burning before spraying the tree with the recommended insecticides with long residual effects. Spraying showed be done twice a month depending on the degree of infestation.

3.) Another common pest is the bark borer.

To control - This pest remove the dead branches where it lays its eggs. Spray the recommended pesticides and bum affected twigs and dead branches.

4.) Jackfruit is also attacked by the fungal pink disease,especially during the rainy season. To prevent its spread, spray plants with sulphur fungicide at least twice a month during rainy season. Always prune and burn severely affected branches.

HARVESTING

Jackfruit bears fruit at three years old. About 10 fruits can be harvested the first time the tree bears fruit.

The following are indicators of fruit ripeness:
• when the last leaf on the stalk turns yellow;
• the fruit produces dull, hollow sounds when tapped;
• its well-developed and widely spaced spines yield to moderate pressure.

The time to harvest depends on how the fruit is to be used. If it’s for home consumption, pick fruit when the rind is soft, emitting an aromatic odor, and when the leaf nearest the stalk turns yellow. At this stage, the flesh of the fruit is yellow-orange, shiny and juicy. If you plan to sell the fruit, pick it when mature but still firm and without aroma. At this stage, the flesh is pale-yellow and crisp.

Take extra care not to damage the fruit. When you cut the penduncle of the fruit with a sharp knife or sickle, be sure another person wearing hand gloves to protect his hands from spines will assist. When harvesting from tall trees, place the fruit in a sack to prevent it from falling to the ground. Tie a rope to the stalk, snap the fruit from the tree, and slowly lower the bundle to the ground.

Harvesting should be done at mid - morning to late afternoon to reduced latex flow because, at this time of the day, latex cells are less turgid. This would minimize latex stains which give the fruit an unsightly appearance. Remove the retained peduncle and unwanted water sprouts from the trunk after picking the fruit.

When handling the fruit, lay it against a railing with its stalk down to let the latex flow and coagulate. It is best to transport the fruits in single layers. Always put dried banana leaves between fruits and spread some on the container to prevent the fruits from getting bruises, scars, and breaks. Never insert a pointer stick into the fruit’s stem. Many people in the rural areas believe this technique hastens ripening but this has no basis. A cut on the stem only serves as an entry point for decay-producing organisms.

The fruit usually weighs from five to 15 kilogram; bigger ones weigh more. Fruit experts or pomologists grade the fruit according to size: large, at least 20kg; medium, at least 15kg but no more than 20kg; and small, at least 8kg but not more than 15kg. Another way of grading jackfruit is according to condition. Grade No. 1 means that the fruit is fairly well-formed, free from damage by discoloration or scars, cuts, skin breaks, diseases, and insects. Grade No. 2 means that the fruit has no specific shape, though free from cuts, skin breaks, insects, and diseases.


----------
JACKFRUIT PRODUCTS
----------

JACKFRUIT JUICE

Ingredients:
jackfruit pulp
sugar
calamsi extract
water

Procedure:
1. Steam-blanch the jackfruit pulps for five minutes.
2. Osteorize the jackfruit pulps to procedure puree.
3. Mix 1 part puree to 3 parts water.
4. Add calamansi extract and sugar to taste.
5. Cool and serve.


JACKFRUIT PRESERVE

Ingredients:
1 kg jackfruit pulp
1 kg white sugar
1 part water

Procedure:

1. Select the ripe but firm langka fruits. Remove the seeds and cut both ends of the flesh, then wash.
2. Boil syrup for 10 mins. Combine 1 part each sugar and water for every part of langka pulp. Soak overnight.
3. Drain syrup the following day. Pack in sterilized jars and pour boiling syrup. Remove bubbles, then half seal.
4. Pasteurize in boiling water for 30 mins. Seal tightly.
5. Place the jars upside down to test for leakage.
6. Cool, dry, and label.


CANDIED LANGKA

Ingredients:
1 kg langka
2 1/2 cups white sugar
1 gram sodium benzoate

Procedure:
1. Select sound, ripe langka fruit.
2. On the first day, cut langka into segments and separate edible pulp from seeds.
3. Wash it in running water and drain.
4. Dip langka in boiling water and drain.
5. Prepare syrup by boiling 2 cups water and 2 cups sugar for 5 minutes.
6. Soak langka pulp overnight in a cooled syrup.
7. On the second day drain off syrup, boil until the consistency becomes thick.
8. Repeat step no. 6
9. On the second day drain off syrup, boil until the consistency becomes thick.
10. Repeat step no. 6.
11. On the fourth day repeat step no. 9 and 10, then add 1 gram sodium benzoate. Mix well.
12. On the fifth day, drain the fruit, arrange on trays and dry in a dehydrator or under the sun for 16 hours at 52-64oC. (sun dried fruits should be pasturized in an oven for 30 minutes before wrapping).
13. Cool, wrap in cellphane and pack in polyethylene bags.
14. Label and store in a cool dry place.


JACKFRUIT JAM

Ingredients:
1 cup jackfruit puree
3/4 cup white sugar

Procedure:
1. Use fully ripe langka fruit.
2. Cut the fruit into half and separate the segments. Remove the seeds and osteorize the pulp.
3. To one cup of osteorize pulp, add 3/4 cup sugar and boil with constant stirring until thick and clear.
4. Pack while hot in sterilized jars and seal tightly.
5. Cool and serve.


References:
1. Technoguide Series, Jackfruit DA-RFU 8, eastern Visayas Integrated Agricultural Research Center (EVIARC)
2. Asexual Propagarion in Jackfruit, EVIARC leaflet No. 1
3. Jackfruit Delights, EVIARC


SOURCE: Department of Agriculture, Philippines


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Contents and articles contained within this website are owned by their respective authors. These were collected to provide Filipinos the resources they need in starting their own business without the pain of searching the vast space of the World Wide Web. Credits and source link are indicated at the end of every article if it has been taken from another site,